Un unexpected pleural effusion in a pediatric patient in apparently good health

Pleural effusion (PE) occurs when fluid collects between the parietal and visceral pleura. This condition is a complication of pneumonia and pleuritis and can occur in 5-40% of cases. In children, the main aetiological agents involved are S. pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, in a few cases, it represents an epiphenomenon of a disease that can affect other organs different from the lungs, such as onco-haematological diseases. Herein, we described a pleural effusion due to an acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
This case presents a singular experience manifested in a paediatric patient with ALL who initially presented with a large and unilateral pleural effusion with the aim to highlight the importance of never underestimating the possibility of an unusual underlying cause.

Received: May 22, 2023
Accepted: Aug 21, 2023
Published: Mar 1, 2024

Table of Contents: Vol. 2, n. 1, March 2024

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